Mgp10 span tables pergola

Premier Wholesalers of timber products and Treated Radiata Pine is lou pregnant in season 7 of heartland AS 1649-2001. Timber - Methods of test for mechanical fasteners and connectors - Basic working loads and characteristic strengths. AS 1684 SUPP 0-1992. National Timber Framing Code,.The correct bearer sizes can be found in span Table 49 in AS1684. These tables assume a minimum end bearing of 50 mm by bearer width, and intermediate bearing of 100 mm by bearer width for conti nuous bearers. Minimum bearing = 30 mm at end supports and 45 mm at internal supports for continuous span members.Span Tables available here: GL13 Verandah Posts – Sheet Roof N3 C2. GL13 Verandah Posts – Tiled Roof N3 C2. GL17S Deck Bearers. GL17S Deck Joists. GL17S Floor Bearers. GL17S Floor Joists. GL17S Lintels – Sheet Tile N3. GL17S Lower Story Lintels – Sheet N3. hudson valley magazine best of 2022 Jan 16, 2011 · AS 1684.2 – CD Span Tables Contains a CD of Span Tables (45 sets in all) for wind zones N1/N2, N3 and N4 for the following timber stress grades: Unseasoned softwood: F5, F7 Seasoned softwood: F5, F7, F8, MGP10, MGP12, MGP15, Unseasoned hardwood: F8, F11, F14, F17 Seasoned hardwood: F14, F17, F27 5. freightliner egr bypass BLUE Treated MGP10 T2 H2 Treated MGP12 T2 H2 GREEN Treated MGP10/F7/F5 H3; 42×18: 30×30: ... Fence posts, greenhouses, pergola posts (in-ground) and landscaping ... Refer to General Notes for information that is relevant for all Span Tables. 2. For design parameters, refer to Figure 7.26, AS1684.2 and 3. 3. Where rafters are equal to or exceed four … electrolux washer error code d5Step 2: Layout. The layout of your pergola roof can be quite simple to very complex. An advanced do-it-yourselfer will likely have the tools and experience to build an elaborate roof, while others may prefer something simple. We’ll describe the most common (shed), to the more intricate (hip), and the basic differences.Pergola Rafter Spans for 600 mm and 900 mm Spacing. Wind Classification N1 & N2. Notes: 1) Refer to general notes for information that is relevant for all span tables. 2) For design parameters, refer to figure 7.26. AS1684.2 and 3. 3) Where rafters are equal to or exceed four times their breath, blocking should be used to reduce distortion. traxxas Pics of : Floor Joist Span Tables Mgp10. See also Sur La Table Berkeley California. ... Pergolas And Carports Pdf Free Contents See also Sur La Table Austin Hours. Week 03 Tutorial Pdf …The correct bearer sizes can be found in span Table 49 in AS1684. These tables assume a minimum end bearing of 50 mm by bearer width, and intermediate bearing of 100 mm by bearer width for conti nuous bearers. Minimum bearing = 30 mm at end supports and 45 mm at internal supports for continuous span members.WoodhouseStep 2: Layout. The layout of your pergola roof can be quite simple to very complex. An advanced do-it-yourselfer will likely have the tools and experience to build an elaborate roof, while others may prefer something simple. We’ll describe the most common (shed), to the more intricate (hip), and the basic differences. dosbox staging Oct 08, 2013 · Hi Guys, I have existing deck which i want to build a pergola over which will have polycarb roofing on the specs are below. Fascia/ledger beam 6 meters long @ 140x45 MGP10 already existing. side beam span is 6 meters longer single span with two posts at each end. rafter span is 1800 meters. roof height is approx 2.5. the bearer span table. Dig holes 600mm deep, place stumps on 230 x 230 x 100mm deep bed of concrete. Backfill holes, ensuring posts are vertical, with soil or soil and concrete mix and compact firmly. Finally fit ant caps to stumps. 4. Lay Bearers and Joists. Decide the direction of the decking boards as the bearer direction is the same as the ... violin competition bay area . Whether your a professional builder, a Tradesman or a Home Handyman, The trouble with building projects is when you need framing you need it now. The local Blokes at Jimboomba T 2014 work and play toy hauler for sale Step 2: Layout. The layout of your pergola roof can be quite simple to very complex. An advanced do-it-yourselfer will likely have the tools and experience to build an elaborate roof, while others may prefer something simple. We’ll describe the most common (shed), to the more intricate (hip), and the basic differences. Treated pine is used for general construction, primarily in above-ground outdoor applications. MGP10 to MGP15 machine-graded pine: MGP10 implies a minimum stiffness threshold of 10,000 MPa. This system is used to grade most exotic softwoods (Pinus species). The problem with building projects, whether you’re a professional.. Whether your a professional builder, a Tradesman or a Home Handyman, The trouble with building projects is when you need framing you need it now. The local Blokes at Jimboomba T fauna irl The correct bearer sizes can be found in span Table 49 in AS1684. These tables assume a minimum end bearing of 50 mm by bearer width, and intermediate bearing of 100 mm by bearer width for conti nuous bearers. Minimum bearing = 30 mm at end supports and 45 mm at internal supports for continuous span members.Woodhouse oiling bernina 1230 F7 - MGP10 ... deck and pergola structures. ... Seasoned softwood span tables: Floor joists for domestic balconies and decks – revised loading (joist ...LVL Span Tables. Downloads -SmartLVL 12 Studs 2019 Edition 1: 1.36 MB: Download SmartLVL 12 Roof Batten 2019 Edition 1: 1.02 MB: Download SmartLVL 12 Framing VIC 2019 Edition 1: 1.24 MB: Download SmartLVL 12 Framing 2019 Edition 1: 1.31 MB: Download SmartLVL13 Design Guide 2021 Edition 1: 6.84 MB: DownloadBendigo Timber Treated Pine Kiln Dried Structural. Add A Pergola New Zealand Handyman Magazine. Beam Span Tables. Step By To A Diy Garden Pergola Stuff Co Nz. View Topic Timber Span Tables Home Renovation Building Forum.The correct bearer sizes can be found in span Table 49 in AS1684. These tables assume a minimum end bearing of 50 mm by bearer width, and intermediate bearing of 100 mm by bearer width for conti nuous bearers. Minimum bearing = 30 mm at end supports and 45 mm at internal supports for continuous span members.AS 1649-2001. Timber - Methods of test for mechanical fasteners and connectors - Basic working loads and characteristic strengths. AS 1684 SUPP 0-1992. National Timber Framing Code,.Span Tables available here: GL13 Verandah Posts – Sheet Roof N3 C2. GL13 Verandah Posts – Tiled Roof N3 C2. GL17S Deck Bearers. GL17S Deck Joists. GL17S Floor Bearers. GL17S Floor Joists. GL17S Lintels – Sheet Tile N3. GL17S Lower Story Lintels – Sheet N3. hk45 accessories Jan 16, 2011 · AS 1684.2 – CD Span Tables Contains a CD of Span Tables (45 sets in all) for wind zones N1/N2, N3 and N4 for the following timber stress grades: Unseasoned softwood: F5, F7 Seasoned softwood: F5, F7, F8, MGP10, MGP12, MGP15, Unseasoned hardwood: F8, F11, F14, F17 Seasoned hardwood: F14, F17, F27 5. fault code p11a9 Treated pine is used for general construction, primarily in above-ground outdoor applications. MGP10 to MGP15 machine-graded pine: MGP10 implies a minimum stiffness threshold of 10,000 MPa. This system is used to grade most exotic softwoods (Pinus species). The problem with building projects, whether you’re a professional.Step 2: Layout. The layout of your pergola roof can be quite simple to very complex. An advanced do-it-yourselfer will likely have the tools and experience to build an elaborate roof, while others may prefer something simple. We’ll describe the most common (shed), to the more intricate (hip), and the basic differences.Step 2: Layout. The layout of your pergola roof can be quite simple to very complex. An advanced do-it-yourselfer will likely have the tools and experience to build an elaborate roof, while others may prefer something simple. We’ll describe the most common (shed), to the more intricate (hip), and the basic differences.AS 1684.2 – CD Span Tables Contains a CD of Span Tables (45 sets in all) for wind zones N1/N2, N3 and N4 for the following timber stress grades: Unseasoned softwood: F5, F7 Seasoned softwood: F5, F7, F8, MGP10, MGP12, MGP15, Unseasoned hardwood: F8, F11, F14, F17 Seasoned hardwood: F14, F17, F27 5. how many cm in a km the bearer span table. Dig holes 600mm deep, place stumps on 230 x 230 x 100mm deep bed of concrete. Backfill holes, ensuring posts are vertical, with soil or soil and concrete mix and compact firmly. Finally fit ant caps to stumps. 4. Lay Bearers and Joists. Decide the direction of the decking boards as the bearer direction is the same as the ... Pergola Tables 481 KB pdf; Timber Properties Used in Span Table Calculations 73 KB pdf; Design Data 125 KB pdf; Table 1 Shed Rafter beam 579 KB pdf; Table 2 Prolam Ridge Beam supporting roof and ceiling 48 KB pdf; Table 1 Prolam Lintel supporting roof and ceiling 85 KB pdf; Table 3 Prolam Rafter for internal use supporting roof and ceiling 80 ... the bearer span table. Dig holes 600mm deep, place stumps on 230 x 230 x 100mm deep bed of concrete. Backfill holes, ensuring posts are vertical, with soil or soil and concrete mix and compact firmly. Finally fit ant caps to stumps. 4. Lay Bearers and Joists. Decide the direction of the decking boards as the bearer direction is the same as the ... lost ark 1415 dps Treated pine is used for general construction, primarily in above-ground outdoor applications. MGP10 to MGP15 machine-graded pine: MGP10 implies a minimum stiffness threshold of 10,000 MPa. This system is used to grade most exotic softwoods (Pinus species). The problem with building projects, whether you’re a professional. As1684 Span Tables Mgp10. Pergola Span Tables Mgp10. Floor Joist Span Tables Mgp10. Ceiling Joist. The book has been produced to supplement AS 1684 Residential Timber Framed Construction. Included are span tables for: Unseasoned Softwood - F7. Unseasoned Hardwood - F8. Seasoned Softwood (treated) - F7.Span Tables Rafters Roof Lintels Deck Joists Deck Bearer Ridge Beams Calculations Paint specs Design with Jenkin Tru-Pine Span Tables. Rafters 3-7 Roof Lintels 8-18 Deck Joists 19 Deck Bearer 20-21 Ridge Beams 22-26 Calculations 27-28 Paint Specs 29. the bearer span table. Dig holes 600mm deep, place stumps on 230 x 230 x 100mm deep bed of ... limoges porcelain marks Span Tables available here: GL13 Verandah Posts - Sheet Roof N3 C2. GL13 Verandah Posts - Tiled Roof N3 C2. GL17S Deck Bearers. GL17S Deck Joists. GL17S Floor Bearers. GL17S Floor Joists. GL17S Lintels - Sheet Tile N3. GL17S Lower Story Lintels - Sheet N3.But MGP10 timber is better than f7 timber. Span Tables The Woodhouse Timber Company Span Tables for F7 grade timber structural finger jointed members and GL8 members have been examined and are considered to be structurally satisfactory and able to meet the requirements of AS 1170 Parts 1 and 2 - 2002 Design Actions. www.standards.com.au ...AS 1649-2001. Timber - Methods of test for mechanical fasteners and connectors - Basic working loads and characteristic strengths. AS 1684 SUPP 0-1992. National Timber Framing Code,. party boats galveston Step 2: Layout. The layout of your pergola roof can be quite simple to very complex. An advanced do-it-yourselfer will likely have the tools and experience to build an elaborate roof, while others may prefer something simple. We’ll describe the most common (shed), to the more intricate (hip), and the basic differences. . Whether your a professional builder, a Tradesman or a Home Handyman, The trouble with building projects is when you need framing you need it now. The local Blokes at Jimboomba T emily the trimmer Plywood Box Beam Span Tables For Detached Housing Construction. Ppt Timber Framing Using As 1684 2 Span Tables Powerpoint. All Seasons Span Table Set 4. Timber Steel Framing Manual Single Span Roof …Oct 08, 2013 · Hi Guys, I have existing deck which i want to build a pergola over which will have polycarb roofing on the specs are below. Fascia/ledger beam 6 meters long @ 140x45 MGP10 already existing. side beam span is 6 meters longer single span with two posts at each end. rafter span is 1800 meters. roof height is approx 2.5. The more stress the pine timber can withstand, the more MGP it’ll have. There are three ratings available for MGP: MGP10 = F7. MGP12 = F8. MGP15 = F11. Highly versatile all-round timber. Minimum requirement for building. Higher strength than MGP10. Suitable for frames, walls, floors joists and supports. printedwarhammer mega Span Tables Rafters Roof Lintels Deck Joists Deck Bearer Ridge Beams Calculations Paint specs Design with Jenkin Tru-Pine Span Tables. Rafters 3-7 Roof Lintels 8-18 Deck Joists 19 Deck Bearer 20-21 Ridge Beams 22-26 Calculations 27-28 Paint Specs 29. the bearer span table. Dig holes 600mm deep, place stumps on 230 x 230 x 100mm deep bed of ... Step 2: Layout. The layout of your pergola roof can be quite simple to very complex. An advanced do-it-yourselfer will likely have the tools and experience to build an elaborate roof, while others may prefer something simple. We’ll describe the most common (shed), to the more intricate (hip), and the basic differences. AS 1649-2001. Timber - Methods of test for mechanical fasteners and connectors - Basic working loads and characteristic strengths. AS 1684 SUPP 0-1992. National Timber Framing Code,.5 paź 2010 ... With regards to the beam, can I get the MGP10, or do I need MGP12 or F17 ... The span tables I have don't specify pergola rafters and beams, ...Pergola Rafter Spans for 600 mm and 900 mm Spacing - (Wind Classification N1 & N2) Single Span ... bmw dme unlock near me Woodhouse 5 paź 2010 ... With regards to the beam, can I get the MGP10, or do I need MGP12 or F17 ... The span tables I have don't specify pergola rafters and beams, ...Pergolas and Carports - Hyne top wide receivers 2022 fantasy football WoodhouseUse our Span Tables to calculate the ideal structural beam or post for your job Check out our Online Specifier (specifier.prolamnz.com) for anything outside these tables. 24 Files. Pergola Tables 481 KB pdf; Timber Properties Used in Span Table Calculations 73 … canon image class Mgp10 Pine Beam Span Tables. Posted on March 8, 2020 by Sandra. Of southern queensland pergolas and carports span tables single span ridge beam span tables powerpoint ation. Ppt Bcgca3005b Powerpoint Ation Id 210104. Renovate Forums. Pergolas And Carports. Timber Framing Using As 1684 2 Span Tables.the bearer span table. Dig holes 600mm deep, place stumps on 230 x 230 x 100mm deep bed of concrete. Backfill holes, ensuring posts are vertical, with soil or soil and concrete mix and compact firmly. Finally fit ant caps to stumps. 4. Lay Bearers and Joists. Decide the direction of the decking boards as the bearer direction is the same as the ... owego police department arreststhe bearer span table. Dig holes 600mm deep, place stumps on 230 x 230 x 100mm deep bed of concrete. Backfill holes, ensuring posts are vertical, with soil or soil and concrete mix and compact firmly. Finally fit ant caps to stumps. 4. Lay Bearers and Joists. Decide the direction of the decking boards as the bearer direction is the same as the ...The full capacity of the strap requires at least five nails in JD5 (i.e. MGP10 pine) timber. 'deemed to satisfy', include span tables for the seasoned sizes and stress grade F27. For applications that fall outside the scope and provisions of AS 1684, Boral F27 seasoned hardwood should be engineer designed, constructed and certified in ...5 Star Timbers former hillsong members SPAN TABLES - These span tables have been developed in good faith, with the assistance of Mr.Peter Falvey B.E., M.I.E.Aust., C.P.Eng., ... Kiln Dried Hardwood & Pine, Treated H3 Finger Jointed Pine includes F7, GL8 & GL10, F8 Treated Primed Pine Posts,. 1968 chevelle ss specs. how to become a christian counselor in texas.Woodhouse taylor street pizza Timber And Hardware Supplies In Melbourne | Demak TimberSpan Tables Rafters Roof Lintels Deck Joists Deck Bearer Ridge Beams Calculations Paint specs Design with Jenkin Tru-Pine Span Tables. Rafters 3-7 Roof Lintels 8-18 Deck Joists 19 Deck …TABLE 6 — FLOOR JOISTS(continued) 140 Joist Spacing (mm) 450 600 MAXIMUM JOIST SPAN AND CANTILEVER (mm) Span Cantilever Span Cantilever Continuous Spans (continued) 85 x 40 1900 400 1700 375 90 x 35 1900 400 1700 375 90 x 45 2100 450 1900 400 120 x 35 2600 550 2400 500 120 x 45 2900 600 2600 550 Joist Size Depth x Breadth (mm) Note: 1.But MGP10 timber is better than f7 timber. Span Tables The Woodhouse Timber Company Span Tables for F7 grade timber structural finger jointed members and GL8 members have been examined and are considered to be structurally satisfactory and able to meet the requirements of AS 1170 Parts 1 and 2 - 2002 Design Actions. www.standards.com.au ... bison ranch for sale texas the bearer span table. Dig holes 600mm deep, place stumps on 230 x 230 x 100mm deep bed of concrete. Backfill holes, ensuring posts are vertical, with soil or soil and concrete mix and compact firmly. Finally fit ant caps to stumps. 4. Lay Bearers and Joists. Decide the direction of the decking boards as the bearer direction is the same as the ...AS 1684.2 - CD Span Tables Contains a CD of Span Tables (45 sets in all) for wind zones N1/N2, N3 and N4 for the following timber stress grades: Unseasoned softwood: F5, F7 Seasoned softwood: F5, F7, F8, MGP10, MGP12, MGP15, Unseasoned hardwood: F8, F11, F14, F17 Seasoned hardwood: F14, F17, F27 5.Renovate forums is f7 or mgp10 graded timber better for plywood box beam span tables for sizing timber part 2 span tables youThe correct bearer sizes can be found in span Table 49 in AS1684. These tables assume a minimum end bearing of 50 mm by bearer width, and intermediate bearing of 100 mm by bearer width for conti nuous bearers. Minimum bearing = 30 mm at end supports and 45 mm at internal supports for continuous span members. kohler generator oil capacity The software allows the user to generate AS 1684 type span tables, individual timber member designs, bracing as well as tie-down designs for non-cyclonic and cyclonic wind regions as provided for in the suite of AS 1684 Residential Timber-framed Construction standards. Member designs can be generated for all timber grades available in AS 1684 ...Premier Wholesalers of timber products and Treated Radiata Pineseparation anxiety social story pdf sunset hill shooting range prices cottagecore shein haulSpan Tables Rafters Roof Lintels Deck Joists Deck Bearer Ridge Beams Calculations Paint specs Design with Jenkin Tru-Pine Span Tables. Rafters 3-7 Roof Lintels 8-18 Deck Joists 19 Deck Bearer 20-21 Ridge Beams 22-26 Calculations 27-28 Paint Specs 29. the bearer span table. Dig holes 600mm deep, place stumps on 230 x 230 x 100mm deep bed of ... adyar ananda bhavan a2b But MGP10 timber is better than f7 timber. Span Tables The Woodhouse Timber Company Span Tables for F7 grade timber structural finger jointed members and GL8 members have been examined and are considered to be structurally satisfactory and able to meet the requirements of AS 1170 Parts 1 and 2 - 2002 Design Actions. www.standards.com.au ... how to cut octopus haircut Span Tables available here: GL13 Verandah Posts – Sheet Roof N3 C2. GL13 Verandah Posts – Tiled Roof N3 C2. GL17S Deck Bearers. GL17S Deck Joists. GL17S Floor Bearers. GL17S Floor Joists. GL17S Lintels – Sheet Tile N3. GL17S Lower Story Lintels – Sheet N3. The following table provides an easy comparison of popular seasoned ... Pergola Rafter Spans for 600 mm and 900 mm Spacing - (Wind Classification N1 & N2). office jobs SPAN TABLES - These span tables have been developed in good faith, with the assistance of Mr.Peter Falvey B.E., M.I.E.Aust., C.P.Eng., ... Kiln Dried Hardwood & Pine, Treated H3 Finger Jointed Pine includes F7, GL8 & GL10, F8 Treated Primed Pine Posts,. 1968 chevelle ss specs. how to become a christian counselor in texas.I'm building a pergola and would like to use MGP12 for the beam 'cos I'm at the edge of the MGP10 / F5 span tables. utvs for sale in north georgia In some cases, F7 will span further, while in others MGP10 will. ... while MGP10 will span further where stiffness is the major factor (eg pergola rafters).Span Tables. Rafters. Roof Lintels. Deck Joists. Deck Bearer. Ridge Beams. Calculations. Paint specs. Design with Jenkin Tru-Pine Span Tables ...Timber Steel Framing Manual Joist Single Span Span Guide For Residential Framing Is F7 Or Mgp10 Graded Timber Better For Outdoor Structures In Australia Timber steel framing manual single span rafter sizing timber part 2 span tables you is f7 or mgp10 graded timber better for outdoor structures in australia dpr hardwood span tables f14 f17Pergolas And Carports Timber Framing Using As 1684 2 Span Tables Is F7 Or Mgp10 Graded Timber Better For Outdoor Structures In Australia Ppt Timber Framing Using As … animal abuse registry illinois span (mm) F5F7F8F11F14F5MGP10MGP12F17F27 ... TABLE A24 LINTELS—SUPPORTING SINGLE STOREY OR UPPER STOREY LOADBEARING WALLS Unseasoned timber Seasoned timber Roof type Rafter or truss span (mm) Opening width (mm) F5 F7 F8 F11 F14 F5 MGP10 MGP12 F17 F27 900 100×38 100×38 75×50 75×38 75×38 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35 90×35. Whether your a professional builder, a Tradesman or a Home Handyman, The trouble with building projects is when you need framing you need it now. The local Blokes at Jimboomba T Jan 16, 2011 · AS 1684.2 – CD Span Tables Contains a CD of Span Tables (45 sets in all) for wind zones N1/N2, N3 and N4 for the following timber stress grades: Unseasoned softwood: F5, F7 Seasoned softwood: F5, F7, F8, MGP10, MGP12, MGP15, Unseasoned hardwood: F8, F11, F14, F17 Seasoned hardwood: F14, F17, F27 5. But MGP10 timber is better than f7 timber. Span Tables The Woodhouse Timber Company Span Tables for F7 grade timber structural finger jointed members and GL8 members have been examined and are considered to be structurally satisfactory and able to meet the requirements of AS 1170 Parts 1 and 2 - 2002 Design Actions. www.standards.com.au ... circus auto parts inventory Bendigo Timber Treated Pine Kiln Dried Structural. Add A Pergola New Zealand Handyman Magazine. Beam Span Tables. Step By To A Diy Garden Pergola Stuff Co Nz. View Topic Timber Span Tables Home Renovation Building Forum.BLUE Treated MGP10 T2 H2 Treated MGP12 T2 H2 GREEN Treated MGP10/F7/F5 H3; 42×18: 30×30: ... Fence posts, greenhouses, pergola posts (in-ground) and landscaping ... almanya benzin fiyati 2021 Span tables allow users to choose an appropriate size and stress grade to achieve spanning needs. For simple construction, such as domestic construction, this can be determined from span table supplements in AS1684.2 and AS1684.3. Other (more complex) load condition spans can be determined with our free Hyne Timber Design 7.5 software. T3 Green ... But MGP10 timber is better than f7 timber. Span Tables The Woodhouse Timber Company Span Tables for F7 grade timber structural finger jointed members and GL8 members have been examined and are considered to be structurally satisfactory and able to meet the requirements of AS 1170 Parts 1 and 2 - 2002 Design Actions. www.standards.com.au ... front toward enemy Step 2: Layout. The layout of your pergola roof can be quite simple to very complex. An advanced do-it-yourselfer will likely have the tools and experience to build an elaborate roof, while others may prefer something simple. We’ll describe the most common (shed), to the more intricate (hip), and the basic differences. Step 2: Layout. The layout of your pergola roof can be quite simple to very complex. An advanced do-it-yourselfer will likely have the tools and experience to build an elaborate roof, while others may prefer something simple. We’ll describe the most common (shed), to the more intricate (hip), and the basic differences. kenworth parts diagram AS 1649-2001. Timber - Methods of test for mechanical fasteners and connectors - Basic working loads and characteristic strengths. AS 1684 SUPP 0-1992. National Timber Framing Code,.3-way Corner bracket for pergola. Be the first to review this product. €32.25. 41 piece (s) in stock; delivery within 3 to 5 days. With corner brackets from Nesling you can easily create a pergola!Treated pine is used for general construction, primarily in above-ground outdoor applications. MGP10 to MGP15 machine-graded pine: MGP10 implies a minimum stiffness threshold of 10,000 MPa. This system is used to grade most exotic softwoods (Pinus species). The problem with building projects, whether you’re a professional. royal caribbean duty free prices